Alternatives to radiocarbon dating
The time required for half the original number of parent atoms to decay is called the half life.
Some half-lives are listed below: It follows that uranium-lead, potassium-argon (K-Ar), and Rubidium-Strontium (Rb-Sr) decay can be used for very long time periods, whilst radiocarbon dating can only be used up to about 70,000 years. This uses a simple exponential decay formula linking the original number, Po, of parent atoms in rocks and minerals to the P atoms now present, thereby enabling an estimate of geological age.
Radioactive parent (P) atoms decay to stable daughter (D) atoms e.g.
the carbon isotope C-14 decays to nitrogen-14 and the uranium isotope U-235 decays to the lead isotope Pb-207.
Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.
C-14 dating of carbon-bearing materials is therefore limited to roughly 50,000 years.
One early approach was based upon ocean salinity [John Joly, 1800's].
This assumed the ocean was initially pure water and that it's salinity was derived from continental erosion.
These estimates give 4.4-4.5 billion years for moon rock, and 4.54 billion years for iron metreorites.
These techniques utilize the physical parameters of the earth, such as ice cores, annual lake sediments, and astronomical cycles.